who wrote the book of esther

Another view attempts to identify him instead with Artaxerxes I (ruled 465–424 BC), whose Babylonian concubine, Kosmartydene, was the mother of his son Darius II (ruled 424–405 BC). [27][28], As noted by biblical scholar Michael D. Coogan, the book contains specific details regarding certain subject matter (for example, Persian rule) which are historically inaccurate. Joseph’s story begins with him being taken in captivity to Egypt. But while the writer gets the general characteristics of the court right, we cannot be sure whose reign he is describing. +((!+[]+(!![])+!![]+!![]+!![]+!![]+!![]+!![]+[])+(+!![])+(!+[]+(!![])+!![]+!![]+!![]+!![]+!![])+(!+[]+(!![])+!![]+!![]+!![])+(!+[]-(!![]))+(!+[]+(!![])+!![]+!![])+(!+[]+(!![])-[])+(!+[]+(!![])+!![]+!![]+!![])+(!+[]+(!![])+!![]))/+((!+[]+(!![])+!![]+!![]+[])+(!+[]-(!![]))+(!+[]+(!![])+!![]+!![]+!![]+!![])+(!+[]+(!![])+!![]+!![]+!![]+!![])+(!+[]+(!![])+!![]+!![]+!![]+!![])+(+!![])+(!+[]+(!![])-[])+(!+[]+(!![])+!![]+!![]+!![]+!![])+(!+[]+(!![])+!![]+!![]+!! [8], On his accession, however, Artaxerxes II lost Egypt to pharaoh Amyrtaeus, after which it was no longer part of the Persian empire. Revealed: The Romania Interrogation, Donald Trump and Orthodox Jews Share No Values at All, Lockdown Is a Big Mistake: What Top Israeli Doctors Really Think, Gal Gadot as Cleopatra Makes Archaeological Sense, She Invited Strangers To Her Bed. It’s as if the Book of Esther is saying that Mordechai’s family should be kings in place of the House of David. Tradition has it that the core of the book was written by Mordechai, its main character and the cousin of Esther, and that the text was later redacted by the Great Assembly (a Jewish council of sages in antiquity). In contrast, the 1979 revision of the Vulgate, the Nova Vulgata, incorporates the additions to Esther directly into the narrative itself, as do most modern Catholic English translations based on the original Hebrew and Greek (e.g., Revised Standard Version Catholic Edition, New American Bible, New Revised Standard Version Catholic Edition). All commentators of the Book of Esther have noticed this fact but made the conclusion that although He is not mentioned by name or title even once, He was still in control behind the scene to protect His people. Jona Schellekens, a sociologist at the Hebrew University, came up with a theory for this, which he published in a paper in 2009. He obtains Ahasuerus' permission to execute this plan, against payment of ten thousand talents of silver, and casts lots ("purim") to choose the date on which to do this – the thirteenth of the month of Adar (3:7–12). The Nova Vulgata accounts for the additional verses by numbering them as extensions of the verses immediately following or preceding them (e.g., Esther 11:2–12 in the old Vulgate becomes Esther 1:1a–1k in the Nova Vulgata), while the NAB and its successor, the NABRE, assign letters of the alphabet as chapter headings for the additions (e.g., Esther 11:2–12:6 in the Vulgate becomes Esther A:1–17). 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One theory holds that the elaborate story is based on a Babylonian legend that lay at the center of a Babylonian holiday commemorating the victory of the Babylonian gods over the Elamite gods. She refuses, infuriating Ahasuerus, who on the advice of his counselors removes her from her position as an example to other women who might be emboldened to disobey their husbands (1:12–19). [46] Luther's complaints against the book carried past the point of scholarly critique and may reflect Luther's antisemitism. We don't know, but Schellekens points to the very last verse of Esther, indeed to the very last word: “He [Mordechai] was great among the Jews and popular with many of his countrymen, for he sought favor for his people, and spoke of peace and prosperity for all of his posterity.”. The Book of Esther is used twice in commonly used sections of the Catholic Lectionary. Ahasuerus then makes arrangements to choose a new queen from a selection of beautiful young women from throughout the empire (2:1–4). But King Jeconiah was expelled from Judah by Nebuchadnezzar 130 years before Xerxes ascended the throne. [42], Although marriages between Jews and Gentiles are not permitted in orthodox Judaism, even in case of Pikuach nefesh, Esther is not regarded as a sinner, because she remained passive, and risked her life to save that of the entire Jewish people.[43]. In both cases, the text used is not only taken from a Greek addition, the readings also are the prayer of Mordecai, and nothing of Esther's own words is ever used. (In contrast, the Greek historian Ctesias refers to a similar father-in-law/general figure named Onaphas.) [27][28] In Esther 2:5–6, either Mordecai or his great-grandfather Kish is identified as having been exiled from Jerusalem to Babylon by King Nebuchadnezzar II in 597 BC: "Mordecai son of Jair, the son of Shimei, the son of Kish, who had been carried into exile from Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon, among those taken captive with Jeconiah king of Judah". Who wrote the Book of Esther? During the feast, she asks them to attend a further feast the next evening (5:6–8). But while the story of Esther could be based on the story of Joseph, it also bears a close relationship to the story of King Saul. However, this miracle was in a hidden form, occurring through apparently natural processes, not like the Exodus from Egypt, which openly revealed the might of God. The massacre had been plotted by the king’s chief minister, Haman, and the date decided by casting lots (purim). 335–341, literary view, Thespis: Ritual, Myth, and Drama in the Ancient Near East by, White, Sidnie Ann. Immediately after, Ahasuerus and Haman attend Esther's second banquet. An additional six chapters appear interspersed in Esther in the Septuagint, the Greek translation of the Bible. Hoschander argues that these were not deities as Strabo supposed but garbled forms of "Haman" and "Hamedatha" who were being worshipped as martyrs. Joseph interprets the dreams of Pharaoh's ministers, and Mordechai saves Ahasuerus from an assassination attempt – yet both go unrewarded. The book purports to explain how the feast of Purim came to be celebrated by the Jews. [29][30][31], In her article "The Book of Esther and Ancient Storytelling", biblical scholar Adele Berlin discusses the reasoning behind scholarly concern about the historicity of Esther. Tradition says Mordechai wrote the Book of Esther, but surely he wouldn't have gotten the timing of his own expulsion a century wrong? "Introduction to the Old Testament (Hebrew Bible): Lecture 24 – Alternative Visions: Esther, Ruth, and Jonah", "The Book of Esther: Opus non gratum in the Christian Canon", "The Internet Antique Shop – The Web's largest antiques & collectibles mall serving collectors since 1995", Extract from The JPS Bible Commentary: Esther by Adele Berlin, Reading the Megilla and Publicizing the Miracle, minhagim (customs) and halachot (laws) by Rabbi, Hearing the Book of Esther with a short translation by Rabbi Yonadav Zar In Hebrew, Esther: 2012 Critical Translation with Audio Drama, A Megillah (scroll of the Book of Esther), Esther scrolls in the Bezalel Narkiss Index of Jewish Art, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Book_of_Esther&oldid=983481340, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2018, All Wikipedia articles that are incomprehensible, Wikipedia articles that are incomprehensible from February 2020, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the New International Encyclopedia, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, an opening prologue that describes a dream had by Mordecai, the contents of the decree against the Jews, prayers for God's intervention offered by Mordecai and by Esther, an expansion of the scene in which Esther appears before the king, with a mention of God's intervention, a copy of the decree in favor of the Jews, a passage in which Mordecai interprets his dream (from the prologue) in terms of the events that followed. [23] There is no reference to known historical events in the story; a general consensus, though this consensus has been challenged,[24][25] has maintained that the narrative of Esther was invented in order to provide an aetiology for Purim, and the name Ahasuerus is usually understood to refer to a fictionalized Xerxes I, who ruled the Achaemenid Empire between 486 and 465 BCE. The additions, called "The rest of the Book of Esther", are specifically listed in the Thirty-Nine Articles, Article VI, of the Church of England as non-canonical. It relates the story of a Hebrew woman in Persia, born as Hadassah but known as Esther, who becomes queen of Persia and thwarts a genocide of her people. Then He Realized His Mistake, This Is Israel's Greatest Enemy, According to a Former General and Shin Bet Chief, This Founding Father Was a Serial Cheater Who Hated Israel. In contrast, the additions are included in the Biblical apocrypha, usually printed in a separate section (if at all) in Protestant bibles. "Esther: A Feminine Model for Jewish Diaspora" in Newsom, This page was last edited on 14 October 2020, at 13:39. If you would like to be notified when your comment is published,

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