The Nova Vulgata accounts for the additional verses by numbering them as extensions of the verses immediately following or preceding them (e.g., Esther 11:2–12 in the old Vulgate becomes Esther 1:1a–1k in the Nova Vulgata), while the NAB and its successor, the NABRE, assign letters of the alphabet as chapter headings for the additions (e.g., Esther 11:2–12:6 in the Vulgate becomes Esther A:1–17). Mordecai and Esther send letters throughout the provinces instituting an annual commemoration of the Jewish people's redemption, in a holiday called Purim (lots) (9:20–28). It is dated around the late 2nd to early 1st century BC. She finds favour in the King's eyes, and is crowned his new queen, but does not reveal her Jewish heritage (2:8–20). Women of the Wall costumed for Purim reading the Megillah (Book of Esther) at the Western Wall, March 3, 2015.  Attempts have been made to connect both "Omanus" and "Haman" with the Zoroastrian term Vohu Mana; however this denotes the principle of "Good Thoughts" and is not the name of a deity. Taken together, the evidence of the vagueness about the king and the timeline problems, and the language, indicate that the redaction was by a Jewish scribe writing in Shushan in the middle of the 4th century B.C.E., about events that apparently happened more than a century before. There is a problem with the timing, too, which could also be an artifact of the book having been redacted long years after the event. The Greek book of Esther, included in the Septuagint, is a retelling of the events of the Hebrew Book of Esther rather than a translation and records additional traditions which do not appear in the traditional Hebrew version, in particular the identification of Ahasuerus with Artaxerxes and details of various letters. But the theory has a fatal flaw: there is no known Babylonian myth or holiday describing the victory of the Babylonian gods over the Elamite gods. This was noted by Jerome in compiling the Latin Vulgate. Your comment was successfully submitted and will be published in At the very core of the Jewish holiday of Purim lies the Book of Esther, which tells they story of how two Jews, Mordechai and Esther, who ascended in the ancient Persian court of Ahasuerus, saved the Jews from genocide by the evil prime minister Haman.  The Coptic and Ethiopic versions of Esther are translations of the Greek rather than the Hebrew Esther. " The reason for questioning the historical accuracy of such ancient writers as Herodotus is that he is one of the primary sources of knowledge for this time period, and it has been frequently assumed that his account may be more accurate than Esther's account. We should notice that throughout the entire Book of Esther, Elohim of Israel is not mentioned neither by His Name, nor by any of His titles. The King promises to grant her any request, and she reveals that she is Jewish and that Haman is planning to exterminate her people, including her (7:1–6). Amestris has often been identified with Vashti, but this identification is problematic, as Amestris remained a powerful figure well into the reign of her son, Artaxerxes I, whereas Vashti is portrayed as dismissed in the early part of Xerxes's reign. Revealed: The Romania Interrogation, Donald Trump and Orthodox Jews Share No Values at All, Lockdown Is a Big Mistake: What Top Israeli Doctors Really Think, Gal Gadot as Cleopatra Makes Archaeological Sense, She Invited Strangers To Her Bed. Hoschander argues that these were not deities as Strabo supposed but garbled forms of "Haman" and "Hamedatha" who were being worshipped as martyrs. On the one hand, the fact that no Greek influence made it into Esther is strong evidence that the book was written before the Achaemenid Dynasty was destroyed by Alexander the Great in 330 B.C.E., marking the start of the Hellenistic period. , The Book of Esther consists of an introduction (or exposition) in chapters 1 and 2; the main action (complication and resolution) in chapters 3 to 9:19; and a conclusion in 9:20–10:3. A decree follows that "every man should bear rule in his own house" (1:20–22). There are certain elements of the book of Esther that are historically accurate. The King returns in at this very moment and thinks Haman is assaulting the queen; this makes him angrier and he orders Haman hanged on the very gallows that Haman had prepared for Mordecai (7:8–10). Among these women is a Jewish orphan named Esther, who was raised by her cousin or uncle, Mordecai (2:5–7). This process is automatic. • There are several paintings depicting Esther and her story, including The Punishment of Haman by Michelangelo, in a corner of the Sistine Chapel ceiling. Joseph interprets the dreams of Pharaoh's ministers, and Mordechai saves Ahasuerus from an assassination attempt – yet both go unrewarded. Surely a contemporary writer like Mordechai would have known that. Her ancestors were among the Jews wh… On the seventh day of the latter banquet, Ahasuerus orders the queen, Vashti, to display her beauty before the guests by coming before them wearing her crown (1:10–11). (In contrast, the Greek historian Ctesias refers to a similar father-in-law/general figure named Onaphas.) If this refers to Mordecai, he would have had to live over a century to have witnessed the events described in the Book of Esther. (6:7–9).  There is no reference to known historical events in the story; a general consensus, though this consensus has been challenged, has maintained that the narrative of Esther was invented in order to provide an aetiology for Purim, and the name Ahasuerus is usually understood to refer to a fictionalized Xerxes I, who ruled the Achaemenid Empire between 486 and 465 BCE. Commentary of the Vilna Gaon to the Book of Esther 1:1, Revised Standard Version Catholic Edition, New Revised Standard Version Catholic Edition, Françoise d'Aubigné, marquise de Maintenon, "Where God is Not: The Book of Esther and Song of Songs", 10.1093/acref/9780199543984.001.0001/acref-9780199543984-e-56, http://ccat.sas.upenn.edu/nets/edition/17-esther-nets.pdf, "Historia Scholastica/Esther - Wikisource".
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