While tonality qua system constitutes a theoretical (and thus imaginative) abstraction from actual music, it is often hypostatized in musicological discourse, converted from a theoretical structure into a musical reality. I respond that this principle is purely metaphysical [anthropological]. The wide usage of "tonality" and "tonal" has been supported by several other musicologists (of diverse provenance); it can be traced, e.g., in the articles collected in Judd 1998a. This definition includes pre-17th century western music, as well as much non-western music. He describes melodic tonality (the term coined independently and 10 years earlier by Estonian composer Jaan Soonvald (Rais 1992, 46)) as being "entirely different from the classical type," wherein, "the whole line is to be understood as a musical unit mainly through its relationship to this basic note [the tonic]," this note not always being the tonic as interpreted according to harmonic tonality. Schoenberg described this kind of tonality (with references to the music of Wagner, Mahler, and himself, amongst others) as "aufgehobene Tonalität" and "schwebende Tonalität" (Schoenberg 1922, 444, 459–60), usually rendered in English as "suspended" ("not in effect", "cancelled") tonality and "fluctuating" ("suspended", "not yet decided") tonality, respectively (Schoenberg 1978, 383). Power chord technique was often allied with modal procedure" (Everett 2000, 331). "Tonal harmonies must always include the third of the chord" (Brown 2005, 46). In 1882, Hugo Riemann defined the term Tonalität specifically to include chromatic as well as diatonic relationships to a tonic, in contrast to the usual diatonic concept of Tonart. Fétis saw tonalité moderne as the historically evolving phenomenon with three stages: tonality of ordre transitonique ("transitonic order"), of ordre pluritonique ("pluritonic order") and, finally, ordre omnitonique ("omnitonic order"). This dominant triad must be preceded by a chord progression that establishes the dominant as the penultimate goal of a motion that is completed by moving on to the tonic. What empirical evidence connects tonality and affect in Beethoven’s music? The term "tonalité" (tonality) was first used in 1810 by Alexandre Choron in the preface "Sommaire de l'histoire de la musique" (Brown 2005, xiii) to the "Dictionnaire historique des musiciens artistes et amateurs" (which he published in collaboration with François-Joseph-Marie Fayolle) to describe the arrangement of the dominant and subdominant above and below the tonic—a constellation that had been made familiar by Rameau.