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A given language may have distinct genitive and possessive forms, as in the example of Russian given above. For example, English uses a possessive clitic ('s) and a preposition, of. An alternative to the pronominal possessive determiner, found in some languages, including Finnish and Hungarian, is the possessive affix, usually a suffix, attached to the noun denoting the thing possessed. An example from Japanese is neko no iro ("the cat's color"), where neko means "cat", no is the particle, and iro means "color". What some authors refer to as possessives, others may call genitives, and vice versa. Here mine may be considered to be a predicate adjective (like red in the book is red) rather than a pronoun; in English, however, the same possessive form is used anyway. A similar feature found in some languages is the possessive affix, usually a suffix, added to the (possessed) noun to indicate the possessor, as in the Finnish taloni ("my house"), where talo means "house" and the suffix -ni means "my". In languages that have a genitive case, the genitive form of a noun may sometimes be used as a possessive (as in German Karls Haus "Karl's house"). In some instances there is no difference in form between the determiner and the pronoun; examples include the English his (and its), and informal Finnish meidän (meaning either "our" or "ours"). The possessive form is used with nouns referring to people, groups of people, countries, and animals. O-class possessive pronouns are used if the possessive relationship cannot be begun or ended by the possessor[2]. Other languages may use differing forms; for example French may use ...est à moi for "...is mine". Possessive determiners (adjectives) are used in combination with a noun, playing the role of a determiner or attributive adjective. ISBN 9780521024136, Toutes les traductions de possessive linguistics, dictionnaire et traducteur pour sites web. While for most authors the term possessive pronoun is reserved (as in this article) for possessives like mine and yours which do not qualify an explicit noun,[7][8] the term is sometimes taken also to include other possessive forms that correspond to pronouns, even though they behave as determiners, qualifying a noun, such as my and your.[9][10]. Most European languages feature possessive forms associated with personal pronouns, like the English my, mine, your, yours, his and so on. For example, my car implies the car that belongs to me or is used by me; it is not correct to precede possessives with an article (*the my car) or other definite determiner such as a demonstrative (*this my car), although they can combine with quantifiers in the same ways that the can (all my cars, my three cars, etc. Words like the English my and your have traditionally been called possessive adjectives. L'encyclopédie française bénéficie de la licence Wikipedia (GNU). Il est aussi possible de jouer avec la grille de 25 cases. of the "possessed" (. In languages that mark this distinction, inherently possessed nouns, such as parts of wholes, cannot be mentioned without indicating their dependent status. This contrasts with English and standard Dutch, where the form of the possessives (his, her, its; zijn, haar) indicates the grammatical or natural gender of the possessor, but does not depend on properties of the possessed. Since Latin: possessivus has its equivalent in Ancient Greek: κτητικός (ktētikós), in linguistic terminology possessives are also referred to as ktetics, particularly in reference to ktetic (possessive) adjectives, and other ktetic (possessive) forms, including names derived from ktetics (ktetic personal names). If the noun is plural, or already ends in s, just add an apostrophe after the s. (2002) "Nouns and Noun Phrases." For details on possessives in English, see, In Norwegian bokmål written form, the phrase could alternatively be written as. These can be used in the same two ways as the pronoun-derived forms: adjectivally, as in Jane's office; and substantively, as in that one is Jane's. Il s'agit en 3 minutes de trouver le plus grand nombre de mots possibles de trois lettres et plus dans une grille de 16 lettres. This can include strict ownership, or a number of other types of relation to a greater or lesser degree analogous to it. For example, in Russian, the genitive of я ja "I" is меня menya ("of me"), whereas the corresponding possessive is мой moy ("my, mine", in masculine singular nominative form). In some languages, possessives are formed from nouns or noun phrases. On the other hand, some languages, such as the Cariban languages, can be said to have a possessed case, used to indicate the other party (the thing possessed) in a possession relationship. However German and several Dutch dialects[2] additionally inflect their possessives, thus giving agreement with both possessor and possessed; German has sein and ihr meaning "his" and "her" respectively, but these inflect to give (for example) feminine forms like seine and ihre, depending on the gender (and number and case) of the thing possessed. Possessive determiners may be modified with an adverb, as adjectives are, although not as freely or as commonly as is the case with adjectives. A particular use of possessive pronouns (and equivalent noun forms) in English is that illustrated in phrases like a friend of mine and that coat of Fred's, used to form possessive expressions when the desired determiner is something other than the default the implied in the usual possessive determiner. Many languages, such as the Maasai language, distinguish between the possessable and the unpossessable. For example, "Peter's house" may be translated either as Péter háza (literally "Peter his-house"), or Péternek a háza ("of-Peter the his-house"). [1] The "possessor" may be, for example: For more examples, see Possession (linguistics) and English possessive § Semantics. Possessive structures in English - use of of and 's "Should I use "of" or an "s" structure?" The most common form is ikh hob, literally "I have", which requires a direct object (accusative). Also, the first set may be called adjectival and the second set substantival possessive pronouns. In Hungarian this affix can also be used when the possessor is represented by a full noun, as described in the next section. For example, in Mikasuki (a Muskogean language of Florida), ac-akni (inalienable) means 'my body', whereas am-akni (alienable) means 'my meat' [1]. [4] Here again the equivalent of the definite article – in this case the definite ending -a on the noun bok – is used in addition to the possessive. Similarly in Mandarin Chinese, "my" or "mine" is wǒ de, where wǒ means "I" and de is the possessive particle. Pronouns other than personal pronouns, if they have possessive forms, are likely to form them in a similar way to nouns (see below). Sadly there's no absolute rule to tell you whether you need to use, or can use, a "possessive" form with "of", on one with "'s". A noun is commonly defined as a person, place, thing, idea, or quality. (Some languages occasionally use the dative case to denote the possessor, as in the Serbo-Croatian kosa mu je gusta "his hair is thick" (literally "the hair to him is thick" in which "to him" is the dative pronoun mu).[15]). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. In Hungarian, the construction Mária háza is used ("Maria's house", literally "Maria her house", where the final -a in háza is the possessive suffix meaning "her"). Adjectives derived from nouns (as inherent attributes of other entities) are also so marked, as in ŋadani 'thick, dense' (< dani 'thicket') or ŋalemoŋ 'muddy, soft' (< lemoŋ 'mud'). According to Zuckermann, the latter form, available in the feature pool together with the erstwhile non-habere Hebrew structure yésh l-i + Subject (there is for me, followed by the nominative), did not prevail because ikh hob is more productive in Yiddish and other European habere languages that contributed to the emergence of "Israeli". Another distinction, which is similar to alienable vs. inalienable possession, is inherent vs. non-inherent possession. [3], A similar process occurred in Maltese: "in the possessive construction, subject properties have been transferred diachronically from the possessed noun phrase to the possessor, while the possessor has all the subject properties except the form of the verb agreement that it triggers. Jouer, Dictionnaire de la langue françaisePrincipales Références. Thus my is termed a dependent (or weak) possessive pronoun, while mine is an independent (or strong) possessive pronoun. For example, French has mon, ma, mes, respectively the masculine singular, feminine singular and plural forms corresponding to the English my, as well as the various possessive pronoun forms le mien, la mienne, les mien(ne)s corresponding to English mine. Called adjectival and the second set substantival possessive pronouns mots-croisés ○ Lettris ○ Boggle, quality. 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