p cresol molecular weight

Thank you for submitting a comment on this article. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The free concentration might be of pathophysiological relevance, since the free fraction probably exerts biological activity, i.e. It is a partially lipophilic moiety which strongly binds to plasma protein (close to 100%) under normal conditions. Occupational Exposure Limit IN ARGENTINA, BULGARIA, COLOMBIA, JORDAN check ACGIH TLV; Occupational Exposure Limit IN SINGAPORE, VIETNAM check ACGIH TLV, Occupational Exposure Limit 5 ppm (22 mg/m, Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Construction), Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Federal Contractors), Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (General Industry), Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Shipyards), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Level TO p-CRESOL-air, National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983, Hazard Code 84266; Number of Industries 8; Total Number of Facilities 1057; Number of Occupations 14; Total Number of Employees Exposed 21313; Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 16798, Hazard Code 84266; Number of Industries 48; Total Number of Facilities 4394; Number of Occupations 34; Total Number of Employees Exposed 33253, EPA TSCA 8(a) PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT INFORMATION, FINAL RULE, EPA TSCA Section 8(d) unpublished health/safety studies, EPA TSCA TEST SUBMISSION (TSCATS) DATA BASE, JANUARY 2001, NIOSH Analytical Method, 1994: Cresol (all isomers) and phenol, 2546, NIOSH Analytical Method, 1994: p-Cresol in urine, 8305, NTP Toxicity studies, RPT# TOX-09, October 2000. Madyastha KM, Raj CP. loss, EPA TSCA Section 8(d) unpublished health/safety studies, EPA TSCA Section 8(e) Risk Notification, 8EHQ-0892-9076, EPA TSCA TEST SUBMISSION (TSCATS) DATA BASE, JANUARY 2001, NCI Carcinogenesis Bioassay (feed);no evidence:mouse,rat. You will be subject to the destination website's privacy policy when you follow the link. Madyastha KM, Raj CP. MacNamara PJ, Lalka D, Gibaldi M. Endogenous accumulation products and serum protein binding in uremia. Gordon WP, Huitric AC, Seth CL, MacClanahan RH, Nelson SD. The effect was dose dependent. Unfortunately, AST-120 is not available outside Japan. In haemodialysed patients a total concentration of 89±49 μmol/l (highest registered value 177 μmol/l) was found [5]. Uremic ultrafiltrate inhibits platelet-activating factor synthesis Blood Purif (in press). One way could be to reduce the intestinal load of p-cresol. p-Cresol in the intestine of uraemic rats can be adsorbed by the administration of the oral sorbant AST-120, resulting in a decrease of serum p-cresol [10]. Inhibitor Concentration Low: 15.63 mg/L/8H, Inhibitor Concentration Low: 15.63 mg/L/24H, In Vitro Toxicity Studies: Apoptosis in vitro, Inhibitor Concentration Low: 31.25 mg/L/1H, Inhibitor Concentration Low: 31.25 mg/L/2H, Inhibitor Concentration Low: 20 µmol/L/5D, Inhibitor Concentration Low: 0.46 mmol/L/12H, Inhibitor Concentration Low: 0.23 mmol/L/24H. Gastric acid suppression by omeprazole promotes protein malabsorption and fermentation, resulting in an increase of p-cresol production and excretion [11]. Molecular Weight. Thomassen D, Slattery JT, Nelson SD. Please check for further notifications by email. Furthermore, p-cresol is a metabolite of menthofuran [14–16], one of the metabolites of R-(+)-pulegone [17], which is found in extracts from the plants Mentha pulegium and Hedeoma pulegioides, commonly known as pennyroyal oil and pennyroyal tea [18]. This residue contains a few percent by weight of phenol and cresols. The effects of antibiotics in the weanling pig diet on growth and the excretion of volatile phenolic and aromatic bacterial metabolites. Abreo K, Sella M, Gautreaux S et al. 108.15 Molecular Formula. p-Cresol (4-methylphenol), a 108.1 Da volatile low-molecular-weight compound, is a member of the large family of the phenoles. Compare Products: Select up to 4 products. Because these compounds are freely available, they might contribute to the p-cresol burden of the uraemic patients, but there is no exact knowledge about the frequency and the intensity of this problem. Bacterial metabolites in feces and urine. Vanholder R, De Smet R, Waterloos MA et al. p-Cresol (4-methylphenol), a 108.1 Da volatile low-molecular-weight compound, is a member of the large family of the phenoles. Sodium zirconium cyclosilicate for hyperkalemia: a collateral acid–base benefit? Chemsrc provides p-Cresol(CAS#:106-44-5) MSDS, density, melting point, boiling point, structure, formula, molecular weight etc. Wratten ML, Tetta C, De Smet R et al. p-Cresol was also shown to inhibit the release of platelet-activating factor by rat peritoneal macrophages [30]. R. Vanholder, Nephrology Unit, Department of Intenal Medicine, University Hospital, De Pintelaan 185, B-9000 Gent, Belgium. Another method entails methylation o… It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide, This PDF is available to Subscribers Only. II. Dialytic therapies that eliminate over 70% of urea and creatinine over a 4-h session, hardly remove 30% of p-cresol, probably because of multicompartmental behaviour and strong protein binding. Recently, the authors developed a sensitive method to determine total and free p-cresol [5,20]. Molecular Weight. In view of the disappointingly low removal by the classical dialysis methods, alternative methods to decrease plasma concentration should be considered. Novel oxidative pathways. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) cannot attest to the accuracy of a non-federal website. Lower p-cresol levels are found with CAPD than with haemodialysis [5], but it is unknown whether this is attributable to a more substantial (continuous) removal, to higher residual renal function, or to differences in intestinal flora or uptake. You will be subject to the destination website's privacy policy when you follow the link. Ethylbenzene-mediated induction of cytochrome P450 isoenzymes in male and female rats. P-cresol, a uremic compound, enhances the uptake of aluminum in hepatocytes. CDC is not responsible for Section 508 compliance (accessibility) on other federal or private website. Together with many other compounds, p-cresol is conventionally extracted from coal tar, the volatilized materials obtained in the roasting of coal to produce coke. About half of the world's supply of cresols are extracted from coal tar. Curtius HC, Mettler M, Ettlinger L. Study of the intestinal tyrosine metabolism using stable isotopes and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. In another in-vitro study, hepatocyte aluminum uptake was increased dose dependently in the presence of p-cresol [29], which was associated with a decrease in cell growth and an increase of AST (aspartate aminotransferase) release in the culture medium. The effect upon tissue respiration in vitro of metabolites which accumulate in uraemic coma. Pennyroyal oil is extensively used for its pleasant mint-like smell in the flavouring industry. Modification of intestinal flora by antibiotics [9], as well as decreases in intestinal transit [31], diminish overall daily urinary excretion of phenols and/or p-cresol, and may hence affect their serum concentration. 2,6-Bis(1,1 … C 7 H 8 O Synonyms. Therefore it is not surprising that this compound, together with several other phenoles, is retained when … It was the only compound to have such an effect at concentrations currently reported in end-stage renal disease [28]. The main contributing bacteria are aerobes (mainly enterobacteria), but to a certain extent also anaerobes play a role (mainly Clostridium perfringens) [8]. p-Cresol is one of the metabolites of the amino acid tyrosine, and to a certain extent also of phenylalanine, which are converted to 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid by intestinal bacteria, before being decarboxylated to p-cresol (putrefaction) [7]. In its chemical structure, a molecule of cresol has a methyl group substituted onto the ring of phenol. Linking to a non-federal website does not constitute an endorsement by CDC or any of its employees of the sponsors or the information and products presented on the website. Nowak I, Shaw LM. Metabolic fate of menthofuran in rats. Possibly, alternative dialytic approaches such as daily haemodialysis or long, slow haemodialysis, might be effective in removing more p-cresol. Chemsrc provides p-Amino-o-cresol(CAS#:2835-96-3) MSDS, density, melting point, boiling point, structure, formula, molecular weight etc. In healthy controls, virtually no free p-cresol could be found; in contrast, in haemodialysed patients, protein binding was only ±90%. De Smet R, David F, Sandra P et al. Mechanisms of the formation and disposition of reactive metabolites that can cause acute liver injury. The administration of antibiotics reduces urinary excretion of p-cresol [9], as a result of the liquidation of the producing bacteria [9]. 2,6-Bis(1,1-dimethylethyl)-4-methylphenol, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Inhibitor Concentration Low: 0.46 mmol/L/6H, lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 29 mg/m, Behavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity), lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1440 mg/kg, lowest published toxic concentration: 10 mg/m, Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes, lowest published toxic dose: 1680 mg/kg/28D- intermittent, lowest published toxic dose: 13132 mg/kg/28D- intermittent, lowest published toxic dose: 15792 mg/kg/28D- intermittent, lowest published toxic dose: 39480 mg/kg/28D- intermittent, lowest published toxic dose: 4550 mg/kg/13W- intermittent, Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes primarily in glomeruli, lowest published toxic dose: 15925 mg/kg/13W- intermittent, lowest published toxic dose: 54600 mg/kg/13W- intermittent, lowest published toxic dose: 0.213 mg/kg/213D- intermittent, lowest published toxic dose: 6776 mg/kg/28D- intermittent, lowest published toxic dose: 21 gm/kg/28D- continuous, lowest published toxic dose: 33600 mg/kg/28D- continuous, American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), Threshold Limit Value-time-weighted average 20 mg/m, Threshold Limit Value-Not classifiable as a human carcinogen, Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) STANDARD-air. Ling WH, Korpela R, Mykkänen H, Salminen S, Hänninen O. Lactobacillus strain GG supplementation decreases colonic hydrolytic and reductive enzyme activities in healthy female adults. p-Cresol has previously been reported to affect several biochemical, biological and physiological functions: (i) it diminishes the oxygen uptake of rat cerebral cortex slices [22]; (ii) it increases the free active drug concentration of warfarin and diazepam [23]; (iii) it has been related to growth retardation in the weanling pig [9]; (iv) it alters cell membrane permeability, at least in bacteria [24]; (v) it induces LDH leakage from rat liver slices [25]; (vi) it induces susceptibility to auditive epileptic crises [26]; and (vii) it blocks cell K+ channels [27].

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