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Specific Energy (Lecture notes 05) 1. 4.3) represents conservation of energy of a fluid element. ρ = density of fluid (kg/m 3) 2 The first two RHS terms, −T(∂p/∂T)ρ(At+(vA)x)+pAt, include a thermodynamic derivative (∂p/∂T)ρ that can be computed with the assistance of an equation of state. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, Water Distribution Networks Designing by the Multiobjective Genetic Algorithm and Game Theory, Metaheuristics in Water, Geotechnical and Transport Engineering, Real-Time Transient Model–Based Leak Detection, Morgan Henrie PhD, PMP, PEM, ... R. Edward Nicholas, in, Steady-state and transient analysis of supercritical natural circulation systems, Pallippattu Krishnan Vijayan, ... Naveen Kumar, in, Single-Phase, Two-Phase and Supercritical Natural Circulation Systems, Compressor and Turbine Performance Characteristics, Gas Turbine Engineering Handbook (Fourth Edition), Steady-state characteristics of heat exchangers, Design and Operation of Heat Exchangers and their Networks, Elements of thermodynamics, fluid mechanics, and heat transfer applied to geothermal energy conversion systems∗, International Journal of Thermal Sciences. However, it has been shown to work well in RTTM applications. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. Note that ρ¯* in Eq. This means that an energy policy involves many different criteria and that choices must not be made solely in economic terms. h a = (p 2 - p 1) / γ + (h 2 - h 1) + (v 2 2 - v 1 2) / 2 g (1). Formula of Energy Consumption. Using Eqs. The energy equation for an homogeneous porous medium can be derived by using the first law of thermodynamics and for local thermal equilibrium and isotropic porous media it is given as follows: where q″′ is the volumetric heat source strength and the last term on the right-hand side of equation (8.6) is the viscous dissipation effect appropriate for the Darcy model. g 2. The degree of performance is expressed with an effectiveness ɛ, defined as the ratio of actual heat load to maximal possible heat load. Elevation (L): (Z)3. Since in zinc–silver oxide batteries the electrolyte is confined either in the electrodes or in the separator, the velocity of electrolyte is usually small, and we can neglect its movement. The spatial component represents the convection of thermal energy with the fluid as it moves through the pipeline. Thus, following a Taylor series expansion, the net heat transport along the coordinate axes are given by, where the subscripts of q indicate the component of heat flux in the corresponding coordinate direction. The energy equation in the general form is represented by the equation. Morgan Henrie PhD, PMP, PEM, ... R. Edward Nicholas, in Pipeline Leak Detection Handbook, 2016. Specific Energy Consumption Calculation S. No Newsprint Units Base Line Year (BY) Assessment Year (AY) 1 Specific Steam Consumption -MP kcal/Tonne 0 0 2 Specific Steam Consumption -LP kcal/Tonne 1921850 1995000 3 Specific Power Consumption kcal/Tonne 1423329.57 1028949.235 Introduction The total energy of a channel flow referred to datum is given by, g V yzH 2 2 ++= (5.1) If the datum coincides with the channel bed at the cross-section, the resulting expression is know as specific energy and is denoted by E. Also, the friction between water and pipe increases, so that the water velocity and headloss have a direct relation (Figure 5.1). Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. However, for low-power applications, such as button cells used in watches, toys control systems, and other similar systems, the constant temperature assumption is fairly the case. Eq. Price is a misleading, insufficient reference when numerous other factors influence availability and access rights. (6.17) shall be evaluated at the mean temperature of the loop. The enthalpy h has been replaced using its definition, together with the assumptions that the fluid has constant density ρ and friction is negligible. In cylindrical coordinates centered on the pipeline cross-section, the heat equation is then written as: Equation 4.5. Notice the similarities between specific energy for open channels and the Bernoulli Equation. The total energy of a channel flow referred to datum is given by, Ali Nikjoofar, Mahdi Zarghami, in Metaheuristics in Water, Geotechnical and Transport Engineering, 2013. Indeed, the velocity item υ→ is related to convection heat transfer and is in association with electrolyte displacement. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. Using the Energy Equation the head rise through a pump or fan can be expressed as:. cross-section of an open channel flow with respect to the channel bed. Q = \(mc\Delta T\) Derivation of Specific Heat Formula Thermal analysis of batteries requires the energy equation to be taken into account in addition to the equations mentioned. discharge Q1. BAYTAŞ, in Transport Phenomena in Porous Media III, 2005. (7.23) is negligible. First by body forces, The heat fluxes are obtained in the usual manner. As shown in Fig. Looks like you’ve clipped this slide to already. Integrating the energy equation for the heater and using the boundary condition that at s=0,i*=icl*, yields. specific energy is constant for a uniform flow and can either decrease or increase in a This is achieved by dividing the equation by ρg. g = acceleration due to gravity = 32.174 ft/s 2 = 9.806 m/s 2. 2 Examining the Equ. Thus, the internal energy u remains constant and Eq. Be aware that this nominal ratio is given for standard test conditions (STC) : radiation=1000 W/m2, cell temperature=25 celcius degree, Wind speed=1 m/s, AM=1.5. In this equation, the pressure head and velocity head are inversely related, which means that when water velocity increases, the pressure head decreases. Specific Energy 5.6, we obtain the following expressions for the rate of work done on the element. Pallippattu Krishnan Vijayan, ... Naveen Kumar, in Single-Phase, Two-Phase and Supercritical Natural Circulation Systems, 2019, For a closed loop, ∮dv=0and hence∮dv*=0,∮dP=0and∮dz=0. The temporal change of energy is given by, Figure 5.7. (7.23) accounts for conduction heat transfer or Fourier heat transfer inside different parts of the cell. For uniform flow, the specific energy of a channel will be constant when the depth and width of the channel remain constant (y and v will then be constant). In the transient term, T and t represent the temperature and time, respectively, whereas the density ρ and specific heat cp vary for different battery parts such as electrodes, electrolyte, and separator. (5.2) show us that, there is a functional relation between the three (5.6), allows elimination of the associated terms, and leads to the following simplified form of the energy equation, Wilfried Roetzel, ... Dezhen Chen, in Design and Operation of Heat Exchangers and their Networks, 2020. Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later. ROBERT LATTÈS, CARROLL WILSON, in Energy: the Countdown, 1979. Energy consumption is the use of power or energy of a system by making use of supply. v = velocity (m/s). [9.24] expresses the terms in units of length. The energy equations of the fluids are applied to different flow arrangements, leading to analytical expressions for the calculation of temperature changes in heat exchangers. y Scribd will begin operating the SlideShare business on December 1, 2020 Finally, the last and most important item of the energy equation is dedicated to net heat generation or q inside the battery cell, which is considered to be internal volumetric net heat production in a zinc–silver oxide battery. This equation can be solved in conjunction with the pipeline energy equation, where the heat flux at the pipeline surface is the inside boundary condition for this equation (at r=rS) and the ground temperature at some distance from the pipeline is the outer boundary condition. The multiplier 4/D in this term arises from the fact that the ratio of the inside pipe surface area to the internal pipe volume is πD/(πD2/4)=4/D.Equation 4.3. This indicates that a fluid flowing through a pipe subject to the stated assumptions, will travel faster where the pressure is lower, and vice versa. Analytical relationships between NTU and ɛ are given for the following flow arrangements: parallel and counterflow including the case of phase change in one fluid; shell-and-tube heat exchangers with one shell-side and one to four tube-side passes; one-pass unmixed-unmixed, mixed-unmixed, and mixed-mixed crossflow; various multipass crossflow arrangements; parallel and counterflow spiral plate heat exchangers; and plate-fin heat exchangers.

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