history of the battlefords

Although Poundmaker tried to prevent it, some of his followers looted the deserted buildings of Battleford. The site was turned over to the Government of Canada in 1951 to be administered as a National Historic Site. At Fort Walsh in December, 1882, Big Bear finally signed his adhesion to Treaty Six so his people would be given food and blankets. They awaited a police attack, just as the citizens of Battleford were waiting for a First Nations attack upon the fort. The citizens of Battleford later painted a picture of wholesale destruction, but it appears that most of the looting of the town had been done by Canadian soldiers scrounging for supplies and souvenirs after the arrival of Colonel Otter's relief column on April 24. Established in 1876, Fort Battleford presided over some of the most pivotal events in the history of western Canada.The North-West Mounted Police (NWMP) at Fort Battleford assisted during the negotiations between First Nations and the Canadian government at the time of the signing of Treaty Six. Poundmaker went to Fort Battleford to negotiate terms of peace with General Middleton and was arrested. In June, 1884, a thirst dance was held on Poundmaker's reserve, at which discussions were held about the worsening living conditions, and the problems inherent in the reserve system. Around the same time the fort also sheltered approximately 500 local people who feared an attack from the surrounding First Nations. : Together with brief historical sketches of Prince Albert, Battleford and the other settlements in the district, 1888 (page 23)", http://peel.library.ualberta.ca/bibliography/1740/23.html, http://esask.uregina.ca/entry/french_and_metis_settlements.html, "McPhillips' alphabetical and business directory of the district of Saskatchewan, N.W.T. He departed Battleford on May 1 with 300 men, making a forced march the forty miles to Cut Knife. George F.G. Stanley's writing on the subject indicated that the Cree were not murderous but more haphazard and bumbling: they "[did] not appear to have in mind an attack upon the town" but were content with "prowling around the neighbourhood." Without General Middleton's approval, on April 24 Otter's column arrived from Swift Current to lift the "siege of Battleford". See the left side bar to learn more about Battleford's historic sites. “In 100 years, so much of the documentation has been lost. The apparent rejection of the peace party tipped the balance of sentiment back in favour of the war party, and delayed the surrender of these bands. Over the next several days 500 civilians would take refuge within the palisades. It was decommissioned in 1924. He was visibly crushed by the loss of his traditional lifestyle, and disillusioned by his failures to unite his people and achieve a better life for them.Big Bear died on Poundmaker's Reserve in January 1888. Section menu. The trial lasted two days, but the jury returned with a verdict of guilty within half an hour. Poundmaker grew up with his Plains Cree relatives, as it was customary for a man to live with his wife's people. With the help of his connections with the Blackfoot, Poundmaker set about helping to organize the First Nations into a large, organized and more cohesive unit in order to more effectively lobby the government for improvements to the lot of First Nations. It did not occur to him that it also suggested that Poundmaker and his followers had no real interest in fighting. Loyal till Death: Indians and the North-West Rebellion, Blair Stonechild and Bill Waiser, Fifth House Ltd., Calgary (Alta), 1997. There was also a "medicine chest" clause that was to help deal with diseases such as scurvy and Tuberculosis. There were treaty grievances that remained unaddressed and stricter control of their lives and activities. History of Battlefords Agency Tribal Chiefs Battlefords Agency Tribal Chiefs Inc. (BATC) is a tribal council that was formed in the spring of 2007 with the original first nations of Ahtahkakoop Cree Nation, Moosomin First Nation, Red Pheasant Cree Nation, Sweetgrass First Nation, and Stoney Knoll First Nation signing the Convention Act. The following is a list of municipalities in The Battlefords. The captive civilians were later released unharmed, but Fort Pitt was looted and then burned to the ground. The Battlefords are served by the Highway 16 (Yellowhead Highway), Highway 4, Highway 29, and Highway 40 (Poundmaker Trail). For the electoral district, see, Rural Municipality of Battle River No. Big Bear began to lose his influence as his peaceful approach and complex ambitions caused dissent within his band. Stolen vehicles and horses carried away the supplies of the Hudson's Bay Company and the other merchants. Hungry and frustrated, some of the Cree and Assiniboine began looting the empty homes in the Battleford area, despite Poundmaker's attempts to stop them. [6], Battleford is located on the Battle River near the North Saskatchewan River. Big Bear told the government's Indian department officials that his people wanted a reserve near Fort Pitt, and in July, 1883, his band was moved there at government expense. The NWMP provided protection and assistance during the treaty-making process. The Looting of Battleford began at the end of March, 1885, during the North-West Rebellion, in the town of Battleford, Saskatchewan, then a part of the Northwest Territories. By 1885 violence had erupted, including attacks at Frog Lake and Fort Pitt led by kah-paypamhchukwao (Wandering Spirit), war chief of Big Bear's band. Big Bear's band and the other bands with them had been lingering in the area since the capture of Fort Pitt. It was also the site of the surrender of pîhtokahânapiwiýin (Poundmaker) to General Middleton's forces on 26 May 1885. As of the 2011 census, the two communities have a combined population of 17,953 and a total regional population of 19,949. Known as a peaceful but independent character, Big Bear was occupied during these years with the traditional activities of his people. Battleford was declared capital of the new North-West Territories of Canada in 1876. [7], The city of North Battleford was founded later in 1905 when the construction of the Canadian Northern Railway main line to Edmonton placed the line on the north side of the North Saskatchewan River. On March 30 Poundmaker asked for a meeting with the Indian agent J. M. Rae. Website Development Studio. He was sentenced to three years in Stony Mountain Penitentiary in Manitoba, but would serve only one year. Within days of the Métis victory at the Battle of Duck Lake on March 26, 1885 Cree bands sympathetic to the Métis cause and with grievances of their own began raiding stores and farms in the western part of the District of Saskatchewan for arms, ammunition and food supplies while civilians fled to the larger settlements and forts of the North-West Territories. More aggressive followers were prepared to fight for their cause. It would serve as one of the major trading posts on the Plains for the next fifty years. Every day until the arrival of Colonel Otter's column on April 24 the occupants of the Fort watched as the Old Town about a mile away was plundered. Big Bear came late to the Treaty Six ceremonies at Fort Pitt, and was dismayed to find that many of the chiefs had already signed. 437, which encompasses the City of North Battleford,[2] is not included as part of the North Battleford CA. He began trying to build a large First Nations alliance to demand better terms from the government. Saulteaux First Nation joined in 2009 and Mosquito Grizzly Bear's Head Lean Man First Nation in 2014. Pemmican was a much sought-after trade item since it was used to provision all the HBC posts in the West. 23-year-old female missing. The town was founded in 1875 as a fur trading post and North-West Mounted Police(NWMP) fort. The buffalo were decreasing already by the winter of 1878-1879, just as Big Bear was at the height of his influence. Its post office opened in 1877. The government had recently moved to ban First Nations travelling away from their own reserves without permission or passes, and had also decreed unlawful, thirst dances and other cultural expressions. [16] Visitors will find themselves immersed in four season recreational infrastructure nestled in over 6,000 years of Indigenous and settler history. Fry, J. D.; Murray, Jean E.; King, Carlyle, College of Graduate and Postdoctoral Studies, http://hdl.handle.net/10388/etd-03022011-125458. To an uncommon degree the history of the Battlefords reflects the major forces which shaped Western Canadian development prior to World War I. Big Bear's band tried to hold out, but the situation was hopeless. Five days later they received word of the defeat of the Métis at Batoche, and the surrender of Riel. He was found guilty, and on November 16 1885, was hanged. To the west where the Cree uprising led by Poundmaker and Big Bear occurred was the Battleford sub-district with 3,603 people. Fort Pitt was one of the locations chosen to host the 1876 signing of Treaty Six, since it was centrally located for many bands. Throughout this period Poundmaker cultivated friendly relations with government authorities, and even assisted them in convincing Big Bear to move onto a reserve. He refused to sign, holding out for better terms. However, the relationship among First Nations, Indian Agents and the NWMP gradually deteriorated as more and more the NWMP became enforcers of the government's Indian Policy. Poundmaker had grown enough in influence that in August, 1876 he was able to speak as a headman of one of the "River People" bands at the Treaty Six negotiations at Fort Carlton. Throughout April the combined bands, about 1500 people, remained on Poundmaker's reserve.

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