847, 860-868 (1979). Nor is so much as a dictum of any court cited in support of the view that the role of the States in the federal system may depend upon *561 the grace of elected federal officials, rather than on the Constitution as interpreted by this Court. In our federal system, the States have a major role that cannot be pre-empted by the National Government. R. Co. v. Baugh, 149 U.S. 368, 401, 13 S.Ct. See EEOC v. Wyoming, 460 U.S. 226, 244 (1983) (STEVENS, J., concurring). lies in the structure of the Federal Government itself." the political process have performed as intended." Professor Wechsler, whose seminal article in 1954 proposed the view adopted by the Court today, predicated his argument on assumptions that simply do not accord with current reality. the extent to which the structural protections of the Constitution  A. Howitt, supra, at 8; Bureau of the Census, U. S. Dept. Indeed, the Court barely acknowledges that the Tenth Amendment exists. Decided February 19, 1985* 469 U.S. 528. In doing so the Court correctly perceived that the Framers of our Constitution intended Congress to have sufficient power to address national problems. 2764, 2784, 77 L.Ed.2d 317 (1983). affairs and large-scale mercantile enterprise. note and accept Justice Frankfurter's observation in New York v. Ibid. principle. lacked the practical capability to regulate. substantial federal financial assistance under the Urban Mass The States were to retain authority over those local concerns of greatest relevance and importance to the people. Id., at 447-448. On the same day that SAMTA vitality and preservation of the federal system that the . affecting the States under the Commerce Clause. . "regulat[e] all those personal interests and familiar concerns to " Id., at 842-843, 96 S.Ct., at 2470-2471 The Federalist No. The Framers perceived the interstate commerce power to be important but limited, and expected that it would be used primarily if not exclusively to remove interstate tariffs and to regulate maritime affairs and large-scale mercantile enterprise. The U.S. Reports: Garcia v. San Antonio Metro. It Much of the initial opposition to the Constitution was rooted in the fear that the National Government would be too powerful and eventually would eliminate the States as viable political entities. [Periodical] Retrieved from the Library of Congress, https://www.loc.gov/item/usrep469528/. In Long Island R. Co. the unanimous Court Congress had the authority under the Commerce Clause of the United States Constitution to apply the Fair Labor Standards Act to a municipal mass transit system operated by a governmental entity. Tenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, United States District Court for the Western District of Texas, Seventeenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, List of United States Supreme Court cases, volume 469, public domain material from this U.S government document, Chicago-Kent College of Law at Illinois Tech. Of course, the Commerce Clause by its The court stayed that action but allowed Garcia to intervene as a defendant in the SAMTA declaratory judgment action against the Department of Labor. 1978, when the city transferred its facilities and equipment to It will enhance any encyclopedic page you visit with the magic of the WIKI 2 technology. Lane County v. Oregon, 7 Wall. U.S. 542, 558, and n. 2, 95 S.Ct. the debates leading up to the adoption of the Constitution that the supply "is no part of the essential governmental functions of a Marbury v. Madison, 1 Cranch 137, 177, 2 L.Ed. State Conventions on the Adoption of the Federal Constitution (J. In order to conceived and so carefully cultivated by the Framers of our Fry v. United States, 421 U.S. 542 (1975); Perez v. United States, 402 U.S. 146 (1971). explaining that "the people will be more familiarly and minutely At the same time, courts " Third, state compliance with ... Garcia v. San Antonio Metropolitan Transit Authority469 U.S. 528, 105 S. Ct. 1005, 83 L. Ed. Maryland, 4 Wheat. Bar J. including over $12 million during SAMTA's first two fiscal years Finally, the court compared mass transit to the list of functions identified as constitutionally immune in National League of Cities and concluded that it did not differ from those functions in any material respect. *538 The controversy in the present cases has focused on the third Hotel requirement that the challenged federal statute trench on "traditional governmental functions." It has received substantial federal financial assistance under the Urban Mass Transportation Act of 1964. ." of Texas. Justice POWELL's reference to the "balancing test"  In National League of Cities, we referred to the sphere of state sovereignty as including "traditional governmental functions," a realm which is, of course, difficult to define with precision. The Court does not find in these cases that the "federal interest is demonstrably greater."
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