U.S. Geological Survey hydrologic technicians use an acoustic Doppler current profiler to measure streamflow on the Boise River in Boise's Veterans Memorial Park as part of a study of phosphorus mass balance. One cubic foot per second (cfs) is equal to the discharge through a rectangular cross section, 1 foot wide by 1 foot deep, flowing at an average velocity of 1 foot per second. AT DENVER, CO, HARVARD GULCH AT HARVARD PARK AT DENVER, CO, WEIR GULCH UPSTREAM FROM 1ST AVE. AT DENVER, CO. SOUTH PLATTE R AT 64TH AVE. COMMERCE CITY, CO.
Most U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) streamgages measure stage and consist of a structure in which instruments used to measure, store, and transmit the stream-stage information are housed. Using the depth and width measurements for calculating the area and the velocity measurements, the discharge is computed by the ADCP using discharge = area x velocity, similar to the conventional current-meter method. USGS streamflow information is critical for supporting water management, hazard management, environmental research, and infrastructure design. FOIA However, a variety of advanced equipment can also be used to sense stage and measure streamflow. The Doppler Effect is the phenomenon we experience when passed by a car or train that is sounding its horn. ; UPDATE November 1, 7:15 pm ET: Real-time data delivery to NWISWeb has been restored at this time. So basically, a doubling of CFS will likely lead to faster water, but not double the speed. The change in frequency, or Doppler Shift, that is measured by the ADCP is translated into water velocity. In addition, the USGS has quality-control processes in place to ensure the streamflow information being reported across the country has comparable quality and is obtained and analyzed using consistent methods. If you have to spend time in other people's shoes before judging them, you'd have to do a lot more than walk a mile to understand a USGS water scientist. The value is determined by multiplying the cross sectional area of the stream, in square feet, times the speed or velocity of the water, in feet per second. The gage is marked in 1/100th and 1/10th foot intervals. 7.45 1.91 sdww01. Measuring stream stage—obtaining a continuous record of stage—the height of the water surface at a location along a stream or river2. And if you were Hydrotech Karl Dydak, you would actually... No data point selected. In this method, the stream channel cross section is divided into numerous vertical subsections. GOAT CAMP CREEK ABV RESERVOIR NO. Page Last Modified: 2020-11-12 09:59:32 EST Acoustic velocity meters have also been developed for making wading measurements (picture to the left). Discharge is the volume of water moving down a stream or river per unit of time, commonly expressed in cubic feet per second or gallons per day. A streamgage is a structure installed beside a stream or river that contains equipment that measures and records the water level (called gage height or stage) of the stream.
• Water Science School HOME • Surface Water topics •. Page Contact Information: Colorado Water Data Maintainer In each subsection, the area is obtained by measuring the width and depth of the subsection, and the water velocity is determined using a current meter. One common approach is with a stilling well in the river bank or attached to a bridge pier. Below are other science topics associated with measuring streamflow. 1. For example, if you were Hydrologic Technician, or "Hydrotech," John Jastram, you would be perched 40 feet above a river as you made water-quality measurements from a swaying cable car. Streamgages operated by the USGS provide stage measurements that are accurate to the nearest 0.01 foot or 0.2 percent of stage, whichever is greater. The mathematical formula is: river width x depth x speed (flow and gradient) = cfs. Sometimes streamgage structures are damaged by floods or can settle over time. Water from the river enters and leaves the stilling well through underwater pipes allowing the water surface in the stilling well to be at the same elevation as the water surface in the river. A third mechanical current meter, also a variation of the Price AA current meter, is used for measuring water velocity beneath ice. Flow on the Allegheny River (Cubic feet per second) Speed via cross- sectional area (Miles per hour) Measured and rescaled speed on the Southern shore of the Allegheny river between 7th and 9th Street (Miles per hour) 5,000.18.15: 10,000.36.3: 15,000.54.45: 20,000.72.60: 25,000: 0.9.75 The measured pressure is directly related to the height of water over the tube outlet in the stream. Stage at a streamgage must be measured with respect to a constant reference elevation, known as a datum. Most of the stage and streamflow information produced by the USGS is available online in near real time through the National Water Information System (NWIS) Web. It is a two-fifths scale version of the Price AA meter and is designed to be attached to a wading rod. Usually a river or stream will be measured at 25 to 30 regularly spaced locations across the river or stream. The measured stage value is stored in an electronic data recorder on a regular interval, usually every 15 minutes. As the car or train passes, the sound of the horn seems to drop in frequency. NORTH FORK GUNNISON RIVER NEAR SOMERSET, CO. NORTH FORK GUNNISON RIVER BELOW PAONIA, CO, NORTH FK GUNNISON RIVER ABOVE MOUTH NR LAZEAR, CO, UNCOMPAHGRE RIVER BELOW RIDGWAY RESERVOIR, CO, LOUTSENHIZER ARROYO AT HWY 50 NEAR OLATHE CO, LAKE FORK SAN MIGUEL RV ABV TROUT LAKE NR OPHIR CO, SOUTH FORK SAN MIGUEL RIVER NEAR OPHIR, CO, SAN MIGUEL RIVER AT BROOKS BRIDGE NEAR NUCLA CO, YAMPA RIVER ABOVE STAGECOACH RESERVOIR, CO, YAMPA RIVER BELOW STAGECOACH RESERVOIR, CO, FISH CR AT UPPER STA NR STEAMBOAT SPRINGS, CO, YAMPA RIVER BELOW SODA CREEK AT STEAMBOAT SPGS, CO, YAMPA RIVER ABOVE ELKHEAD CREEK NEAR HAYDEN, CO, ELKHEAD CREEK ABOVE LONG GULCH, NEAR HAYDEN, CO, WHITE RIVER ABOVE COAL CREEK NEAR MEEKER, CO. PICEANCE CREEK BL RYAN GULCH, NR RIO BLANCO, CO. WHITE RIVER BELOW BOISE CREEK, NEAR RANGELY, CO. LOS PINOS R ABV VALLECITO RES NR BAYFIELD, CO, CASCADE CR ABV CASCADE CR DIVERSION NR ROCKWOOD CO, CASCADE CR BLW CASCADE CR DIVERSION NR ROCKWOOD CO, ANIMAS RIVER AT TALL TIMBER RESORT ABOVE TACOMA,CO, ANIMAS RIVER BLW DURANGO PUMP PLANT NR DURANGO, CO. MUD CREEK AT STATE HIGHWAY 32, NEAR CORTEZ, CO. MCELMO CREEK ABOVE TRAIL CANYON NEAR CORTEZ, CO, MCELMO CREEK NEAR COLORADO-UTAH STATE LINE.
The ADCP uses the Doppler Effect to determine water velocity by sending a sound pulse into the water and measuring the change in frequency of that sound pulse reflected back to the ADCP by sediment or other particulates being transported in the water. The river-bottom tracking capability of the ADCP acoustic beams or a Global Positioning System (GPS) is used to track the progress of the ADCP across the channel and provide channel-width measurements. Stage-discharge relations are developed for streamgages by physically measuring the flow of the river with a mechanical current meter or ADCP at a wide range of stages; for each measurement of discharge there is a corresponding measurement of stage.
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